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Brass, bronze, and copper are weldable in their respective domains. These metals enable joining with silicon bronze welding, MIG equipment, or other techniques. Oxygen-free copper is usually more easily welded. The same is the case for deoxidized copper. MIG and TIG are the most popular techniques for melding this metal.
However, the cementation process was not abandoned, and as late as the early 19th century there are descriptions of solid-state cementation in a domed furnace at around 900–950 °C and lasting up to 10 hours. The European brass industry continued to flourish into the post medieval period buoyed by innovations such as the 16th century introduction of water powered hammers for the production of battery wares. By 1559 the Germany city of Aachen alone was capable of producing 300,000 cwt of brass per year. After several false starts during the 16th and 17th centuries the brass industry was also established in England taking advantage of abundant supplies of cheap copper smelted in the new coal fired reverberatory furnace. In 1723 Bristol brass maker Nehemiah Champion patented the use of granulated copper, produced by pouring molten metal into cold water. This increased the surface area of the copper helping it react and zinc contents of up to 33% wt were reported using this new technique.
Brass is an alloy made primarily of copper and zinc. The proportions of the copper and zinc are varied to yield many different kinds of brass. Basic modern brass is 67% copper and 33% zinc. However, the amount of copper may range from 55% to 95% by weight, with the amount of zinc varying from 5% to 45%. Lead is commonly added to brass at a concentration of around 2%. The lead addition improves the machinability of brass. However, significant lead leaching often occurs, even in brass that contains a relatively low overall concentration of lead. Uses of brass include musical instruments, firearm cartridge casing, radiators, architectural trim, pipes and tubing, screws, and decorative items. Brass Properties Brass often has a bright gold appearance, however, it can also be reddish-gold or silvery-white. A higher percentage of copper yields a rosy tone, while more zinc makes the alloy appear silver. Brass has higher malleability than either bronze or zinc.
Brass has desirable acoustic properties appropriate for use in musical instruments. The metal exhibits low friction. Brass is a soft metal that may be used in cases when a low chance of sparking is necessary. The alloy has a relatively low melting point. It's a good conductor of heat. Brass resists corrosion, including galvanic corrosion from saltwater. Brass is easy to cast. Brass is not ferromagnetic. Among other things, this makes it easier to separate from other metals for recycling. Brass vs. Bronze Brass and bronze may appear similar, yet they are two distinct alloys. Here's a comparison between them: Brass Bronze Composition Alloy of copper and zinc. Commonly contains lead. May include iron, manganese, aluminum, silicon, or other elements. Alloy of copper, usually with tin, but sometimes other elements, including manganese, phosphorus, silicon, and aluminum. Color Golden yellow, reddish gold, or silver. Usually reddish brown and not as bright as brass. Properties More malleable than copper or zinc. Not as hard as steel. Corrosion resistant. Exposure to ammonia may produce stress cracking. Low melting point. Better conductor of heat and electricity than many steels. Corrosion resistant. Brittle, hard, resists fatigue. Usually a slightly higher melting point than brass.
Uses Musical instruments, plumbing, decoration, low-friction applications (e.g., valves, locks), tools and fittings used around explosives. Bronze sculpture, bells and cymbals, mirrors and reflectors, ship fittings, submerged parts, springs, electrical connectors. History Brass dates back to around 500 B.C.E. Bronze is an older alloy, dating back to about 3500 B.C.E. Identifying Brass Composition by Name Common names for brass alloys may be misleading, so the Unified Numbering System for metals and alloys is the best way to know the composition of the metal and predict its applications. The letter C indicates brass is a copper alloy. The letter is followed by five digits. Wrought brasses — which are suitable for mechanical forming — begin with 1 through 7. Cast brasses, which may be formed from molded molten metal, are indicated using an 8 or 9.
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